The lesson introduces students to temporal words or phrases used as transitions for writing personal narratives, stories, and other text. The lesson describes the importance of using temporal words and phrases to help readers understand the sequence of events. A list of temporal words and phrases is also provided for student reference, and the list is broken down into sections like before, sometimes, next and last. The lesson may be used in conjunction with other writing-related lessons.
Sample Classroom Procedure / Teacher Instruction:
- Read aloud or display the following short paragraph: The dog chased the cat. The dog ate from its bowl. The man took the dog for a walk. The dog barked at the mailman. The children played with the dog. Ask students: What is missing from the short paragraph? When did the different events occur? How can you tell?
- Allow for responses and discussion. The students should begin to recognize that it is difficult to determine which event occurred first or last. Further, ask students what could be added to the paragraph to help a reader understand the sequence of events.
- Allow for responses and discussion. Give students a few examples of temporal words and then ask if they could name others.
- Allow for responses. Introduce Using Temporal Words and Phrases to the class.
- Distribute Using Temporal Words/Phrases content pages. Read and review the information with the students. Discuss the use of proper punctuation as well. Save the final instruction for the lesson closing. Use the additional resources to enhance understanding.
- Distribute Activity page. Read and review the instructions. Pair students. Remind students that every sentence will not necessarily include a temporal word or phrase. They may need to include other sentences without time order words. Paragraphs may include stories or other types of writing. Allow sufficient time for completion.
- Once completed, student pairs share one or more paragraphs with the class or another pair of students.
- Distribute Practice page. Check and review the students’ responses. Allow students to share some of their sentences and to possibly expand on them using another temporal word or phrase.
- Distribute the Homework page. Review the directions. Distribute extra paper if necessary. The next day, check and review the students’ responses. Students share their narratives or stories with the class.
- In closing, ask students: Share with the class your events of the day while using at least five temporal words or phrases.
Common Core State Standards:
None for Grade 4
Class Sessions (45 minutes): At least 2 class sessions
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